Database Management Basics

Database management is a system for managing information that supports the business operations of an organization. It includes data storage, distributing it to applications and users and then modifying it if necessary as well as monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from being damaged due to unexpected failures. It is one component of a company’s informational infrastructure that supports decision-making, corporate growth and compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others developed the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS) that made it possible to store and retrieve huge amounts of data for a broad range of purposes, ranging from calculating inventory to supporting complicated human resources and financial accounting functions.

A database is a set of tables that are organized according to a certain scheme, such as one-to-many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records, and also allows cross-references between tables. Each table has a variety of fields, referred to as attributes, which provide information about the entities that comprise the data. The most widely used type of database today is a relational model designed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. The concept is based on normalizing data to make it simpler to use. It is also simpler to update data since it does not require the changing of certain sections of the database.

Most DBMSs can support different types of databases by offering different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level addresses cost, scalability and other operational issues, such as the design of the database’s physical storage. The external level focuses on how the database is presented in user interfaces and other applications. It can include a mixture of different external views that are based on different data models. It may include virtual table that are computed with generic data to enhance the performance.

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